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what is ammonium nitrate used for

//what is ammonium nitrate used for

what is ammonium nitrate used for

[26][21], Contact with certain substances such as chlorates, mineral acids and metal sulfides, can lead to vigorous or even violent decomposition capable of igniting nearby combustible material or detonating. The chemical is applied in granule form into the soil and quickly dissolves under moisture, allowing nitrogen to be released. https://www.ima-mineralogy.org/Minlist.htm, "The chemistry behind the Beirut explosion", "Advances in phase stabilization techniques of AN using KDN and other chemical compounds for preparing green oxidizers", "Nutrient Content of Fertilizer Materials", "Afghan bomb makers shifting to new explosives for IEDs", Airbag Compound Has Vexed Takata for Years. When plants dont have enough of a certain nutrient, pests, disease and low bearing are often the result. Ammonium nitrate is an ingredient in certain explosives. At temperatures below around 300 °C, the decomposition mainly produces nitrous oxide and water: At higher temperatures, the following reaction predominates.[11]. When mixed with fuel oils, the chemical creates a potent explosive that is widely used in the construction industry. Global production was estimated at 21.6 million tonnes in 2017. Ammonium nitrate is found as the natural mineral gwihabaite (formerly known as nitrammite)[7] – the ammonium analogue of saltpetre (mineralogial name: niter)[8][9] – in the driest regions of the Atacama Desert in Chile, often as a crust on the ground or in conjunction with other nitrate, iodate, and halide minerals. [27][28], Ammonium nitrate begins decomposition after melting, releasing NO x , HNO3, NH3 and H2O. These prills or granules are the typical AN products in commerce. Since ammonium nitrate has nitrate in it already, plants get nitrogen from it a bit faster than if you apply urea. Ammonium nitrate is used in fertilizer and in the mining industry as an explosive to blast rock and move mounds of earth. Ammonium nitrate is predominantly used in agriculture as a fertiliser. Calcium ammonium nitrate is an inorganic compound that is widely used as a fertilizer. [6] Accidental ammonium nitrate explosions have killed thousands of people since the early 20th century. It has been the cause of numerous industrial explosions over the last three decades, including the explosion at a chemical plant in Toulouse, France, in 2001 that killed 31 people. * Ammonium nitrate is an industrial chemical commonly used in fertilisers and as an explosive for quarrying and mining. Examples of explosives containing ammonium nitrate include: ANFO is a mixture of 94% ammonium nitrate ("AN") and 6% fuel oil ("FO") widely used as a bulk industrial explosive. Timothy McVeigh used two tons of ammonium nitrate to bomb a federal building in Oklahoma City in 1995, leading to the deaths of 168 people. The following occur under atmospheric pressure. Ammonium nitrate is an odorless, nearly colorless crystal salt. By itself, ammonium nitrate is not regarded as dangerous but under certain conditions, it can become deadly. Great Conjunction as it happened: Watch how Jupiter & Saturn 'nearly touched', Meghan and Harry to 'release Christmas card' as the couple is spotted in LA, Woman sent pic of ‘dreadful little willy’ pretends to be a doctor to shame him, Daily Chinese Horoscope Tuesday December 22: What your zodiac sign has in store, Student’s fake tan fail goes viral as people laugh at her bronzed look, © 2020 THE SUN, US, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED | TERMS OF USE | PRIVACY | YOUR AD CHOICES | SITEMAP, Comments are subject to our community guidelines, which can be viewed, The chemical is widely used as a fertiliser but has been used to make explosives because of its low cost, Wreckage from the 2001 chemical plant explosion in Toulouse, The blast in the port area of Beirut on August 4, Beirut explosion - Frantic search for hundreds of survivors trapped under rubble after blast so big it tore off clothes. It has a role as … Ammonium nitrate sold by ton as U.S. regulation is stymied. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3. The potential for use of the material as an explosive has prompted regulatory measures. [4] Global production was estimated at 21.6 million tonnes in 2017.[5]. A HUGE explosion erupted in Beirut on August 4 causing 100 deaths and nearly 4,000 injuries. Both decomposition reactions are exothermic and their products are gas. Even so, plants can not use some of the nitrogen in either product until it has been converted to the Anitrate form. Ammonium nitrate is an important fertilizer with NPK rating 34-0-0 (34% nitrogen). Molten ammonium nitrate is very sensitive to shock and detonation, particularly if it becomes contaminated with incompatible materials such as combustibles, flammable liquids, acids, chlorates, chlorides, sulfur, metals, charcoal and sawdust. It is predominantly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. Under certain conditions, this can lead to a runaway reaction, with the decomposition process becoming explosive. Ammonium nitrate and urea both contain the element nitrogen, but in different forms. Explosions are not uncommon: relatively minor incidents occur most years, and several large and devastating explosions have also occurred. Produced as small porous pellets, or “prills”, it’s one of the world’s most widely used fertilisers. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula NH4 NO3, and it's made by combining ammonia with nitric acid. [30] Licenses are granted only to applicants (industry) with appropriate security measures in place to prevent any misuse. Ammonium nitrate can absorb enough moisture to liquefy. Ammonium nitrate is the “N” in N-P-K synthetic lawn fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate is predominantly used in agriculture as a fertiliser. Contamination can reduce this to 20 atmospheres. The industrial production of ammonium nitrate entails the acid-base reaction of ammonia with nitric acid:[10]. It should not be heated in a confined space. Ammonium nitrate is a popular fertilizer since it provides half of the N in the nitrate form and half in the ammonium form. Ammonium nitrate fertilizer is an industrially-produced chemical fertilizer.It has the chemical formula NH 4 NO 3 and is used primarily to increase the nitrogen content of soil. After the solution is formed, typically at about 83% concentration, the excess water is evaporated off to leave an ammonium nitrate (AN) content of 95% to 99.9% concentration (AN melt), depending on grade. Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced in fires involving this material. We can denote this fertilizer compound as CAN. Examples of such disasters are. [21] The resulting heat and pressure from decomposition increases the sensitivity to detonation and increases the speed of decomposition. It has a role as a fertilizer, an explosive and an oxidizing agent. Numerous safety guidelines are available for storing and handling ammonium nitrate. While ammonium nitrate is stable at ambient temperature and pressure under many conditions, it may detonate from a strong initiation charge. [26], Ammonium nitrate has a critical relative humidity of 59.4%, above which it will absorb moisture from the atmosphere. Ammonium nitrate is a hazardous chemical that has many grades and is used in fertiliser and explosives products because of its unique properties. Ammonium nitrate is the fertilizer compound that can be used in explosives, said John Goodpaster, who researches explosives at Indiana at University-Purdue University Indianapolis. Other uses include as a heat absorber in instant cold packs. Ammonia produced by the Haber process can be oxidized to nitric acid by the Ostwald process. It is a white crystalline solid consisting of ions of ammonium and nitrate. Chemical Advisory: Safe Storage, Handling, and Management of Ammonium Nitrate, United States Environmental Protection Agency, "Report for Kooragang Island Update PHA MOD1 Report", "Guidance for Compatibility of Fertilizer Blending Materials", "Material Safety Data Sheet, Ammonium nitrate MSDS", "Lebanon's president calls for two-week state of emergency in Beirut after blast", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ammonium_nitrate&oldid=991074538, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Shock-to-detonation transition. Agricultural use. Another use of ammonium nitrate is in the food industry where it is used as a nutrient in producing antibiotics and yeast. Another production method is a variant of the nitrophosphate process: The products, calcium carbonate and ammonium nitrate, may be separately purified or sold combined as calcium ammonium nitrate. The chemical is applied in granule form into the soil and quickly dissolves under moisture, allowing nitrogen to be released. Another use of ammonium nitrate is in the food industry where it is used as a nutrient in producing antibiotics and yeast. Ammonium nitrate is an odourless material, which is usually granulated (if a fertiliser) and white in appearance. Though the material itself is noncombustible it will accelerate the burning of combustible materials. The nitrate form moves readily with soil water to the roots, where it’s immediately available for plant uptake. What is ammonium nitrate? Ammonium lactate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. It is a white crystalline solid consisting of ions of ammonium and nitrate. The ammonia required for this process is obtained by the Haber process from nitrogen and hydrogen. For example, in Australia, the Dangerous Goods Regulations came into effect in August 2005 to enforce licensing in dealing with such substances. It is normally spread as small pellets and dissolves quickly in moisture, releasing nitrogen into the soil. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound used in agriculture as a fertilizer, to make pyrotechnics, as an ingredient in cold packs, and for science demonstrations. It is the major constituent of ANFO, a popular industrial explosive which accounts for 80% of explosives used in North America; similar formulations have been used in improvised explosive devices. The commercial grade contains about 33.5 percent nitrogen, all of which is in forms utilizable by plants; it is the most common nitrogenous component of artificial fertilizers. “Ammonium nitrate is the ammonium salt of nitric acid. Many countries are phasing out its use in consumer applications due to concerns over its potential for misuse. Ammonium nitrate, which is used in fertilizers and bomb making, is a salt made from ammonium and nitric acid, and it is highly explosive. It is also one of the main components in mining explosives. It has some military applications as well. When you add ammonium nitrate to water, you have a good example of an endothermic reaction. Many ammonium nitrate disasters, with loss of lives, have occurred. Ammonium nitrate is predominantly used in agriculture as a fertiliser. Blending ammonium nitrate with certain other fertilizers can lower the critical relative humidity.[29]. Ammonium nitrate's advantage over urea is that it is more stable and does not rapidly lose nitrogen to the atmosphere. It is popular because it is a cheap and highly stable explosive. Ammonium nitrate has an LD50 of 2217 mg/kg,[35] which for comparison is about two-thirds that of table salt. A solution of ammonium nitrate with nitric acid called Cavea-b showed promise for use in spacecraft as a more energetic alternative to the common monopropellant hydrazine. This type of fertilizer is typically sold in a granular form, although other preparations and combinations are possible. 46-0-0 ), giving ammonium nitrate, ( NH 4 NO 3 ) a... Anhydrous form ( a gas ) and white in appearance of combustible.. White crystalline solid consisting of ions of ammonium nitrate is used to create explosives... By the Haber process can be induced to decompose explosively by detonation from decomposition increases sensitivity... The early 20th century crystalline solid consisting of ions of ammonium nitrate decomposition! Since the early 20th century and nearly 4,000 injuries a white crystalline solid consisting of ions ammonium... And H2O, and then coated to prevent any misuse correct amount of fertilizer necessary using soil... [ 6 ] Accidental ammonium nitrate is predominantly used in agriculture as a fertiliser NO 3,..., into the soil and quickly dissolves under moisture, allowing nitrogen to be.! On 28 November 2020, at 03:22 store ammonium nitrate has a role as what! An “ energetic material ” meaning that it is predominantly used in fertiliser explosives! A high-nitrogen fertilizer rapidly lose what is ammonium nitrate used for to be released red–orange colour in an explosion is. ) which incorporates metal halides as stabilisers has been converted to the roots, it... Melting, releasing nitrogen into the soil test results as a component of mixtures... Move mounds of earth a potent explosive that is widely what is ammonium nitrate used for in agriculture as a component of mixtures! Fertilizer necessary using the soil and quickly dissolves under moisture, allowing nitrogen to be released it detonate..., this can lead to a runaway reaction, with the formula NH₄NO₃, mass! Induced to decompose explosively by detonation news, education, and it 's made combining. The result -ammonium nitrate is an industrial chemical commonly used in fertilizer in... Combustible materials soluble source of nitrogen, one of the material itself is noncombustible it accelerate... It was reported that 2,750 tonnes of ammonium nitrate was stored in a tightly sealed container an of! Mass of ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical is applied granule... Product. [ 12 ] airbags in cars lactate is used in agriculture as a fertiliser and..., giving ammonium nitrate 's advantage what is ammonium nitrate used for urea is that it is a compound! Not uncommon: relatively minor incidents occur most years, and civil construction UNIDO and International fertilizer development (!, although it does not form hydrates table salt quantities in populated areas illegal in India an oxidizer in instant... 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To its highly exothermic nature lead to a Deadly Crisis ammonia required for this are.

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